Cold War Conflicts: Poland, Berlin, Greece, Turkey, and Korea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conflicts: Poland, Germany (Berlin), Greece/Turkey, Korea

Germany: occupied by USA, GB, France & Russia
Russia prevented Germany from recovery in its sphere of influence
Russia feared German reunification (could not trust a united Germany)

Churchill “iron curtain” = lines drawn, divided Europe, maybe Stalin saw (or wished for) a capitalist collapse in Western Europe

Truman Doctrine
 Greece was leaning toward communism, GB influenced and made possible free elections
 Russian (soviet) intervention had done the opposite in Poland
 1947: GB hands the reigns of western imperialism to the US, no longer can GB control/influence events in the west
 GB leaves Greece & Turkey, no longer able to provide military & economic assistance
 This new role reversed the return to isolationism the US citizens wanted after the war
 Containment is the policy

Marshall Plan
 Offered economic aid to European nations, come together & plan jointly economic recovery
 A non-military, unassertive form of containment
 Russia is invited to participate, but refused – saw the plan as American Imperialism, using dollars to buy its way into European affairs
 Russia came up with its own plan for the east

Berlin
 Remembering the lessons of WWI, victors wanted German economic recovery
 1948, introduced economic plans w/o Russian agreement
 this cut Germany into two distinct sections (east / west)
 East Germany is on the other side of the “Iron Curtain”
 Each side had its own currency
 Berlin (east) split into two sections w/ two currencies as well
 Soviets stop traffic in/out of Berlin
 The west flew in supplies (airlift) – food, medicine, fuel – 1000 aircraft a day
 Stop us by force!
 Lasted over a year

Korea
 1945, Korea had been divided
 industrial north – Russia / agricultural south – USA (38th parallel)
 United Nations recognized the government of the south
 North had its own government & invaded south Korea in 1950
 Truman sent US forces to fight *acting on behalf of the UN
 General MacArthur led a remarkable attack/strategy, but wanted to move all the way into China
 China warned the US (UN)
 After a few months the north Koreans were being overthrown, but as they neared Manchuria, China intervened and drove the UN forces back
 MacArthur was removed / he spoke against Truman
 Nuclear Weapons??? Used???
 China could not defeat the UN forces – only support the North
 54,000 US soldiers killed
 1950, military budget was 1/3 of the US budget

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