– culture was related to stability, Buddhism, cosmopolitan influences
– the city combined openness and contact with other cultures
– Buddhists brought Indian culture with them (pilgrimages)
– Paintings of the Bodhisattva
– religions: Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism, Judism, Islam, & Zoroastrianism
– Buddhism flourished with vast land holdings & wealth
– Buddhist religion was subservient to the state
– Temples served as schools, inns, bath houses
– They learned money, performed funerals, gave medicine
– technologies: using coke & bellows, heated iron to carbonize steel, printing, using woodblock texts, abacus, gunpowder, grenades
– Money was used, before people used silk
– Made from copper, later silver – then paper
– A hole in the center allowed people to string the coins together on a string
– He [Chinggis Khan] forbade them (the Mongols) to eat anything in the presence of another without having him invited to partake in the food; he forbade any man to eat more than his comrades.
– He [Chinggis-Khan] ordered that all religions were to be respected and that no preference was to be shown to any of them.
– The first is this: That ye love another; second, do not commit adultery; do not steal; do not bear false witness; do not betray anyone. Respect the aged and poor.
– An adulterer is to be put to death without any regard as to whether he is married or not.
– Whoever intentionally lies, or practices sorcery, or spies upon the behavior of others, or intervenes between the two parties in a quarrel to help the one against the other is also to be put to death
– Whoever urinates into water or ashes is also to be put to death.
– When an animal is to be eaten, its feet must be tied, its belly ripped open and its heart squeezed in the hand until the animal dies; then its meat may be eaten; but if anyone slaughter an animal after the Mohammedan fashion, he is to be himself slaughtered.
– Chinese empires always feared or worried about invasion from the east
– Lived on horseback on the grasslands (in tents)
– Families were divided into clans – from clans to tribes
– Chiefs had military strength
– Religion: nature & shamans
– Often warred with each other
– Genghis (or Chinggis) Khan – father, a leader, was killed – he returned after wandering and avenged his father’s death
– Developed a sophisticated army divided into 10,000 troops, with subdivisions of 1 thousand and again to 100 and to 10
– Used hand signals
– Used a compound bow…short enough to use from the saddle and more powerful than the English long bow
– Very mobile (nomadic cavalry)
– Used terror as a weapon – no surrender = killed
– No religious zeal to unify – Genghis used laws and codes to unify
– Conquered China but did not alter its religion or political structure
– Kublai Khan received (from his father, Chinggis — as an heir) China and lived as an emperor