Visits to “America

  • Norse, traveling from Greenland…1001, Leif, son of Erik the Red, settled in Canada [Newfoundland] (for one winter)
  • John Cabot arrived in Newfoundland in 1497, forgotten, but his voyage was later used for British claims to North America…discovered the rich fishing…quickly visited by European fishermen, particularly the Portuguese
  • Spanish were first to explore the continental US, Columbus never saw North America, 1513 under Ponce De Leon [Florida]
  • 1522 – Spanish conquest of Mexico
  • 1539 – Hernando De Soto, landed in Florida and reached as far as the Mississippi in search of riches
  • 1540 – Francisco Coronado traveled to the Grand Canyon and Kansas…never to find gold and riches, but left enough horses escaped to change life on the plains
  • 1578 – Humphrey Gilbert received a patent from Queen Elizabeth to colonize the “heathen and barbarous lands” (lost at sea)
  • 1585 – Walter Raleigh established the first British colony in North America, on Roanoke Island off the coast of North Carolina (abandoned)
  • 1607 – Jamestown

Pre-Columbus – The quest for power

  • 1460 – private entrepreneurs had begun to play larger roles in African expeditions
  • 1470 – Portuguese established trade links with tribes on Africa’s gold coast (Ghana)
  • 1480 – enormous amounts of Gold taken back to Europe
  • 1488 – Bartolomueu Dias led first successful expedition around the southern tip of Africa, into Indian Ocean
  • Columbus was convinced the African Route would be shortened by heading due west
  • Portuguese rebuffed his proposal
  • Spain sponsored him (Ferdinand & Isabella), departed August 2, 1492
  • Landed in the Bahamas…then went onto Cuba & Hispaniola
  • Established a settlement in Haiti
  • Portuguese were tightening their grip on the “new” African trade route to India

Wanted to exclude other European nations and the Arabs too