Shiloh, TN – April 1862
– Lee surprised the Union, won 1st day
– Grant would not retreat, with reinforcements, won 2nd day
– No one “won” – 13,000 Union dead or wounded, 10,000 Confederate dead or wounded
Mississippi River – April 1862
– seized New Orleans, then Memphis, TN two months later
– 2 forts left on the river, Vicksburg, MS & Port Hudson, Louisiana
Still obsessed with capturing Richmond, VA:
– McClellan (new Head of Union Army) inched toward Richmond (2 miles away in May)
– 100,000 Union Troops
– McClellan = organized, respectful of his soldiers’ needs
– Stonewall Jackson confuses Union with a series of attacks in Virginia
– 50,000 troops taken from McClellan’s forces to protect DC
– Jackson joins Lee in Richmond
– 7 day battle, 30,000 killed or wounded
Antietam (Maryland) – September 1862
– Lee now attacks the North
– Would England recognize the South?
– 6000 dead, 17,000 wounded
– no one won, Lee retreats
Richmond attacked again
– Burnside replaces McClellan
– 110,000 (Union) vs. 75,000 (Confederate)
– Union soundly defeated
Chancellorsville, Virginia – May 1863
– Hooker replaces Burnside
– Union defeated, lost 17,000 men
– Stonewall Jackson dies


Gettysburg, PA – July 1863
– Lee attacks the North
– 3 day battle
– New Union Commander, Meade settle on the higher ground to defend
– Lee repeatedly tried to capture the higher ground (Little Round Top & Culp’s Hill)
– On the 3rd day, Lee orders an old fashioned charge to break the Union line (Pickett’s charge)
– 14,000 men marched in the open (1 mile) , few survivors
– Lee lost 28,000 men, Union lost 23,000 men
– Lee retreats, the Union does not follow
Vicksburg, MI – April 1863
– Grant tries (has tried) for months to capture Vicksburg
– Naturally defensible, so Grant ferries his men across to a more penetrable side
– Chases the Confederates into the city, but could not defeat them
– A siege is in place – prolonged attack against soldiers & citizens, starving & bombarding
– 47 day siege ends on July 3, with Vicksburg surrendering
– 5 days later Port Hudson surrenders
Grant now appointed Head of Union Army
– new plan, fight Lee until he tires, send Sherman (general) to fight the other portion in Georgia
Sherman’s march to the sea
– captures Atlanta in September 1864
– could not catch the other Confederate army
– (Lincoln re-elected – Feb 1865 13th Amendment passed)
– Atlanta in flames, Sherman cuts a 60 mile path of destruction across Georgia
– December in reaches Savanna – Sherman wanted the South to be sick of war
Lee & Grant
– Grant outnumbered Lee 2 to 1
– Repeatedly pressing toward Richmond, Lee holds defensive positions
– Grant simply moves to the left and attacks once more
– Stand-off at Petersburg, (almost a year)  Union hems Lee in, Lee surrenders April 9, 1865
– 5 days later Lincoln is assassinated