Jingoism & William Randolph Hurst
· First newspaper in 1887 (San Francisco Examiner – owned by his father)
· Used investigative journalism & Sensationalist stories to increase circulation
· Turned paper to profit in 2 years
· 1895 – in NYC bought New York Morning Journal
· Lured experienced journalists from other newspapers
· Again using sensation stories – especially crime stories, illustrations, and vivid headlines
· Lowered the price to a penny
· Cuba and its barbed wire concentration camps were one of the focuses
· Exploited these angles to whip up Americans (Nationalism, Pride, and desire for aggressive foreign policy became the desire of the public
· All this became known as ‘JINGOISM’
· Hearst served briefly in the House of Rep
· By 1935 he owned 28 major newspapers, 18 magazines, & several radio stations
· It was common practice for a newspaper to report the editor’s interpretation of the news rather than objective journalism. If the information reported was inaccurate or biased, the American public had little means for verification.
· Two publishers, William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, stood out among these opportunists. They perceived the conflict with Spain as their chance to increase circulation of their newspapers.
· Seizing upon the opportunity to capitalize on the growing spirit of American patriotism, Hearst and Pulitzer printed sensational anti-Spanish stories.
· Graphic illustrations commissioned from some of the country’s most-talented artists and stories written by premiere authors and journalists of the day were fodder for fueling the flames of war.
· Together, Hearst and Pulitzer created a frenzy among the American people by reporting the alleged brutality of the Spanish toward the Cuban rebels. (However, acts of outrage committed by the Cubans were seldom mentioned.)
· By the time the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, the pro-war press had roused national sentiment to the point that President McKinley feared his political party would suffer if he did not engage in war with Spain. ·
Perhaps the most famous anecdote surrounding Heart’s zeal for the war involves a legendary communication between illustrator Frederick Remington and Hearst. As the story goes, Remington, who had been sent to Cuba to cover the insurrection, cabled to Hearst that there was no war to cover. Hearst allegedly replied with, “You furnish the pictures. I’ll furnish the war.”
A SPLENDID LITTLE WAR
· The war’s first action did not take place in Cuba – but in the Philippines
· Admiral Dewey surprised the Spanish in 1898 in Manila Bay
· Destroyed the Spanish Fleet in just 7 hours
· In Cuba the US Navy bottled up the Spain’s Atlantic fleet in the harbor
· Troops gathered in Tampa – 1st volunteer Cavalry headed by Teddy Roosevelt
· He left his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy and recruited cowboys, miners, policemen, and college athletes
· They were called the ROUGH RIDERS
· Roosevelt led these men charging up San Juan hill – several African American Units assisted and likely preserved the fate of the ROUGH RIDERS – they were known as the BUFFALO SOLDIERS
· US Navy sank every Spanish ship
· 400 USA men died in battle (2500 overall)
· Sec of State wrote to Teddy Roosevelt and said this was a ‘splendid little war’
What the USA received
· Cuba got its independence
· For 20 million we received: Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam
· What should we do?
· Would the USA violate its own basic principle? LIBERTY?
· McKinley said the Filipinos were unfit for self – government
· If USA did not act first, some other European power would seize the islands
· Filipino rebels who fought with the USA against Spain, now set up a Republic
· The USA ignored them
· War broke out…lasting for 3 years
· 4200 US soldiers were killed
· US killed rather brutally, 16000 Filipino soldiers and 200,000 civilians
· This war continued sporadically until 1946 when the Filipinos were given their independce