US History: Open Door Policy

·    Late 1800’s Trade becomes increasingly important to USA
·    Russia / Germany / England / France / Japan were seeking Spheres of Influence = economic & political control
·    President McKinley’s administration sought out dialogue with these other countries to pursuade them to keep an “OPEN DOOR” with China
·    OPEN DOOR POLICY = equal access to China’s millions of customers
·    Other countries were not exactly ‘warm’ to the idea
·    China resented any foreign influence
·    A secret society in China started a rebellion that led to the massacre of 300 foriegners and Christian Chinese
·    “Boxers” as they were called were defeated by Europeans – McKinley felt the European Imperialists would use this as an opportunity to seize Chinese territory (they did not)

·    Spanish / American War brought a need for a shorter route between the Pacific & Atlantic Oceans
·    A Canal built across Central America would link the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans & allow the navy to move quickly to protect US in time of war
·    Panama was a providence of Columbia
·    A French Company bought a 25 year concession from Columbia to build a canal
·    Due to yellow fever & mismanagement – the project was abandoned
·    The USA tried to buy the remaining rights for 40 million (down from 100 million
·    The US government authorized the purchase from Columbia – with a treaty from the Columbian Government
·    The Columbians wanted to wait ‘til 1904 when the concession expired in order to get a higher price on the open market
·    Roosevelt was enraged – being robbed by the Columbians
·    US encouraged the French company to start a revolt – a Panamanian revolution
·    1903 the revolt began with US warships off the coast for support
·    The US immediately recognized the Panamanian government and became its protector
·    Panama entered into a treaty with the US – giving it a 10 mile stretch in exchange for 10 million
·    Most Americans approved of this action

Great White Fleet 
·    1907 Roosevelt sent a part of the US Navy on a cruise around the world – to demonstrate the nation’s impressive naval power
·    Gleeming white ships – they made an impression everywhere they sailed – US Citizens were proud