• 1819: congress began debating the admission of Missouri to the US
  • Basic issue: SLAVERY
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 stated no state northwest of the Ohio River could be a slave state
  • Missouri is not NW of the Ohio River
  • Worried about another slave state – which would increase the voting power of southern states
  • Slave states worried that congress (federal government) might get into the habit of determining whether states could be free of slavery


THE COMPROMISE (1820): 1) Slavery would be permitted in Missouri & Maine would be carved out of northern Massachusetts and be a free state – thus, keeping the balance of senators 2) 36 30 – above that, in the west, would be free states Thomas Jefferson was terrified, since the country did not confront slavery “His justice cannot sleep forever” FLORIDA PURCHASE

  • Beginning in 1795 a treaty was established with Spain allowing:
  • The use of the Mississippi River through Spanish Territory
  • Florida was firmly Spanish Territory
  • Spain & US would control their own Native populations and prevent them from attacking each other’s “property.”
  • 1810’s: Spain faced rebellions in South American territories
  • Attempts to hold them distracted them from Florida
  • Seminole Indian tribe attacked Georgia
  • Andrew Jackson urged President Monroe to take possession of Florida, Monroe declined
  • Jackson attacks the Seminoles in Florida (anyway)
  • Spain is not happy – the US, not wanting to disappoint the public, who applauded Jackson, accused Spain of breaking its treaty (i.e. allowing the Seminoles to attack)


  • Spain gave up (or ceded Florida to US)
  • Relinquished its claim on the Pacific Northwest
  • Established boundaries in the Southwest, after the Louisiana Purchase (giving Spain what is now Texas and the Southwestern US)