WORLD WAR II
Dictators come to power in Europe
Hitler (Germany) & Mussolini (Italy) have fascist dictatorships
– Nationalism and super-patriotism with a sense of historic mission.
– Aggressive militarism even to the extent of glorifying war as good for the national or individual spirit.
– Authoritarian reliance on a leader or elite not constitutionally responsible to an electorate.
– Cult of personality around a charismatic leader.
– Reaction against the values of Modernism, usually with emotional attacks against both liberalism and communism
The humiliation imposed by the victors in the Great War, coupled with the hardship of the economic Depression, created bitterness and anger. That anger frequently found its outlet in an ideology that asserted not just the importance of the nation, but its unquestionable primacy and central predestined role in history.
In identifying “goodness” and “superiority” with “us,” there was a tendency to identify “evil” with “them.” This process involves scapegoating and dehumanization. It was then an easy step to blame all societal problems on “them,” and presuppose a conspiracy of these evildoers, which had emasculated and humiliated the idealized core group of the nation. To solve society’s problems one need only unmask the conspirators and eliminate them. For Germany, the “them” was the Jews.
Example of economic hardship: War Reparations 33 Billion. = 1922, 162 Marks per dollar / November 1923 = 4,200 Billion Marks per dollar
Italy was the birthplace of fascist ideology. Mussolini, a former socialist journalist, organized the first fascist movement in 1919 at Milan. In 1922 Mussolini led a march on Rome, was given a government post by the king, and began transforming the Italian political system into a fascist state. In 1938 he forced the last vestige of democracy, the Council of Deputies, to vote themselves out of existence, leaving Mussolini dictator of fascist Italy.
Wanted to capture glory of Old Rome (ancient Roman Images)
“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”
Allowed private owned business, but with strict control – not a true communistic state
Arrested + murdered anyone against him *the state
Population more than doubled in 60 years. Needed more land, coal, oil, & resources in general. A generally Democratic government gets over run by a strong military. Westernized in the late 1800’s…far superior to China…attacked Manchuria in 1931, China in 1937, signed on with Italy & Germany in 1936. Resented dependence on the US for raw materials (high tariffs prevented independence and wealth)