1942 – 43
PACIFIC THEATER
– Japan takes Guam & Wake Islands, Korea, Thailand, islands north of Australia
– Drives General MacArthur from the Philippines
– “I Shall Return”
– Midway Island became strategically important, Japan wanted to destroy the aircraft carriers missed in the Pearl Harbor attack
– US bombs Tokyo from aircraft carriers, departing from Midway Island
– US breaks Japanese Code, learns Japan wants to take positions in Islands around Australia (New Guinea)
– US attacks to prevent Japanese strategy, forcing the Japanese to turn back
– US intercepts Japanese Code again, prepares for Japanese attack on Midway
– US planes shot down anyway
– As Japanese forces are re-fueling, believing the US attack over, a few lost planes break through and bomb Japanese Aircraft carriers (helped by the re-fueling – fuel – on deck), destroying all 4
– Terrible loss for the Japanese Navy
– Guadalcanal became the strategic islands for the US offensive
– Both US & Japan knew these islands contained the basis for victory on either side
– 4 months of fighting led to US victory & control of the waters surrounding Japan
– US begins to cut off supplies to Japan
GERMANY
Blitzkrieg: lightning war – sudden, unexpected bombing, following by ground attacks
– attack stalls in Russia, making the same mistake Napoleon made
– unable to bring supplies to support their troops
– unprepared for winter
– Germans bomb the city and wait to attack
– Soviets fight house to house in Stalingrad
– Soviets suffer more loses defending Stalingrad than the US did during the entire war
– Allies use radar & sonar to destroy submarines
– Germans had sunk 125 allied ships in 1942 alone
1943
AFRICA & ITALY
– Churchill & Roosevelt felt they needed to attack Germany in its “soft-underbelly”
– Moved from North Africa to Italy
– Soviets felt sacrificed since the Allies choose not help them in Russia
– From then on the Soviets pursued their own war aims
– Eisenhower led US forces in Africa
– Italians overthrew Mussolini as the Allies took Sicily & surrendered
– German forces in Italy held out until 1944
1943 – 1944
EUROPE
– Stalin, Churchill, & Roosevelt planned an offensive on Germany across the English Channel
– Allied bombing did little to weaken German forces
– Operation Overload
– D-Day (Private Ryan Dramatics) June 6th , 1944
– 150,000 soldiers, 600 warships, 4000 other vessels
– rush the beach at Normandy, France
– Germans knew it was coming, but expected the attack at Calais
– Hitler resisted the advice of his generals to counter-attack because he still believed the Allies would attack at Calais
– Eisenhower led US forces
– Within a week, Allies landed 326,000 soldiers; 50,000 vehicles; & 100,000 tons of supplies
– End of August Allies liberated Paris, then onto Belguim in a few days
– from there the Germans applied a counter-attack (Battle of the Bulge)
– Allies from the West – Russia from the East – Germany was squeezed