Japan & the US
– 1940: US stopped selling planes, moved to terminate a long-standing trade agreement
– ceased selling scrap metal & oil to Japan
– froze financial assists in US
– Japan wanted to control Eastern Asia & the Pacific
– Hawaii & the US stood in their way
– US intercepted intelligence reports and likely knew it was coming
– December 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor Attack
– Destroyed 5 battleships, 3 cruisers, & 200 airplanes
– 2,400 people died
– US declares war on Japan
– Japan’s allies declared war on US
– Quickly took Indonesia, Malaya, Philippines, threatened India & Australia
– By May 1942 the battles of Midway & Coral Sea (US fought long range with air craft carriers)
– The Japanese aggression was beginning to unravel

More on Germany’s belief in Us vs. Them
Leading Nazis, and early 1900 influential German biologists, revealed in their writings that Darwin’s theory and publications had a major influence upon Nazi race policies. Hitler believed that the human gene pool could be improved by using selective breeding similar to how farmers breed superior cattle strains. In the formulation of their racial policies, Hitler’s government relied heavily upon Darwinism, especially the elaborations by Spencer and Haeckel. As a result, a central policy of Hitler’s administration was the development and implementation of policies designed to protect the ‘superior race’. This required at the very least preventing the ‘inferior races’ from mixing with those judged superior, in order to reduce contamination of the latter’s gene pool. The ‘superior race’ belief was based on the theory of group inequality within each species, a major presumption and requirement of Darwin’s original ‘survival of the fittest’ theory. This philosophy culminated in the ‘final solution’, the extermination of approximately six million Jews and four million other people who belonged to what German scientists judged as ‘inferior races’.

The very heart of Darwinism is the belief that evolution proceeds by the differential survival of the fittest or superior individuals. This requires differences among a species, which in time become great enough so that those individuals that possess advantageous features — the fittest — are more apt to survive. Although the process of raciation may begin with slight differences, differential survival rates in time produce distinct races by a process called speciation, meaning the development of a new species.

Hitler believed humans were animals to whom the genetics laws, learned from livestock breeding, could be applied. The Nazis believed that instead of permitting natural forces and chance to control evolution, they must direct the process to advance the human race. The first step to achieve this goal was to isolate the ‘inferior races’ in order to prevent them from further contaminating the ‘Aryan’ gene pool. The widespread public support for this policy was a result of the belief, common in the educated classes, in the conclusion that certain races were genetically inferior as was scientifically ‘proven’ by Darwinism. The Nazis believed that they were simply applying facts, proven by science, to produce a superior race of humans as part of their plan for a better world: ‘The business of the corporate state was eugenics or artificial selection — politics as applied biology.’
(Eugenics = encouraging the production of healthy children, selective breeding)

War of Ideas (as portrayed in the West)
– Freedom of Speech, Worship, from Want, from Fear vs. Racial Superiority, Fascism, Dictatorship
– War of Ideas key to motivating American Public

European Theater
– Almost all of the West fell by summer of 1940, leaving GB to stand alone against the Axis
– Extensive bombing of GB in late summer of 1940
– GB held on due to its control of the waters around it (mainly the Channel)
– Germany knew it could only hope for a stalemate
– Spring 1941, Germany added Greece & Yugoslavia to its conquests
– December 1940, Germany prepared to invade Russia
– Invasion of Russia began in June of 1942
– The invasion bogged down in winter, German troops were ill-prepared for winter fighting